Everything you need to know about Gharar

Post : June 28, 2023

Gharar, also known as excessive uncertainty, is a concept in Islamic finance that refers to the presence of excessive ambiguity or uncertainty in a contractual agreement. It is considered undesirable because it can lead to unfairness, exploitation and disputes. In this blog, we explain everything you need to know about Gharar.

What is Gharar?

In Islam, Gharar refers to excessive uncertainty or ambiguity in a transaction or contract. It is a concept that is closely examined in Islamic jurisprudence, particularly in relation to financial transactions. Gharar is generally regarded as undesirable and is prohibited in Islamic finance due to its potential negative consequences. It is considered contrary to principles of transparency, fairness, and risk-sharing.

The term "Gharar" itself comes from the Arabic language and means "risk" or "uncertainty." It refers to situations where the outcome or essential elements of a transaction are unclear, unpredictable, or based on chance. This uncertainty can arise from factors such as ambiguous terms, undefined quantities, hidden defects, or undisclosed information.

Determining Excessive Uncertainty

The level of gharar in a contract is subjective and depends on various factors, including the extent of uncertainty, the potential for disputes, and the ability to assess risks. Scholars use their judgment to evaluate whether a contract contains excessive uncertainty.

Gharar can manifest in various forms, such as hidden defects, ambiguous terms, uncertain outcomes, or undisclosed information. It can occur in contracts related to sales, loans, insurance, or any other financial agreement.

Islamic scholars differ in their interpretations of the extent of Gharar which is considered excessive. Some argue for a complete prohibition of any degree of Gharar, while others adopt a proportional approach that allows a certain level of uncertainty deemed acceptable.

In Islamic finance, Gharar is taken into consideration when structuring contracts and financial products. Efforts are made to ensure clarity of terms, avoid ambiguity, and disclose relevant information to all parties involved.

Islamic financial institutions emphasise risk management and the sharing of risks between parties to mitigate the effects of Gharar. Contracts are structured to distribute risks and returns more equitably.

The determination of whether Gharar exists in a particular transaction depends on the specific circumstances, intentions of the parties, and the level of uncertainty involved. Islamic scholars and experts play a crucial role in evaluating contracts for compliance with Gharar principles.

Why is it prohibited in Islam?

Islamic finance principles discourage engaging in transactions that involve Gharar. The principle of avoiding excessive uncertainty aims to promote fairness, transparency, and risk-sharing in economic activities. Gharar is generally prohibited in Islamic finance, along with riba (interest) and maysir (gambling).

Gharar is prohibited in Islamic finance for several reasons:

  • Uncertainty and Exploitation: Excessive uncertainty can lead to exploitation and unfair advantage in transactions. It creates an imbalance of information between the parties involved, which may result in one party gaining at the expense of the other.
  • Unfairness and Injustice: Gharar undermines the principle of fairness and justice in economic transactions. It can lead to disputes, disagreements, and potential harm to one or both parties due to the lack of clarity and understanding of the terms and outcomes.
  • Speculation and Gambling: Gharar is closely associated with speculation and gambling, which are discouraged in Islamic finance. Islam promotes real economic activities and discourages transactions that are based solely on chance, speculation, or uncertain outcomes.
  • Preservation of Trust: Islamic finance places a strong emphasis on transparency, trust, and ethical conduct. Prohibiting Gharar helps maintain trust and confidence in financial transactions by ensuring that contracts are clear, understood, and free from excessive uncertainty.
  • Risk Sharing: Islamic finance promotes the sharing of risks and rewards between parties. Excessive uncertainty can hinder effective risk management and disrupt the equitable distribution of risks. By minimising Gharar, risk-sharing becomes more feasible and aligned with Islamic principles.


The prohibition of Gharar in Islamic finance is aimed at promoting fairness, transparency, risk-sharing, and ethical conduct in financial transactions while avoiding potential harm and exploitation. We at Afiyah ensure to offer financial products that don’t compromise your faith. 



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